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Guide to Shock

Posted 05-14-2022, 10:44 AM
In this guide I will go over the basics of shock. Shock is a life threatening condition from many possibilities that reduces the amount of blood the body is getting. During shock your organs stop getting needed bloodflow and oxygen. Immediate treatment is required or the severity will worsen extremely quickly. Everything in this thread will be explained at the easiest level, the definitions are slightly dumbed down but it makes it easier for a beginner to understand.

No advise given here is being practiced in a professional healthcare environment. I am not a doctor, and you should contact your primary health care provider with any health related concerns.

Hypovolemic Shock
(Hypo = Low) (Volemic = Blood Circulation)
Hypovolemic Shock is where you have such a severe bleed or fluid loss that your heart stops being able to pump enough blood for your body, causing organ failure.
For example, let's say a soldier just stepped on an IED and lost his right leg below the kneecap. His body would immediately understand that it is in distress and begins contracting veins and arteries from your extremities. It begins compensating for the bloodloss and starts prioritizing major organs and things needed to stay alive. Your heart rate will rapidly increase from your body trying to maintain itself, but it can only last for so long without enough blood to recirculate. Decompensation will begin to set in and your body will immediately tank in blood pressure, your heart isn't able to keep up with major organs anymore.

Tourniquets - Completely stops blood flow to an extremity
IV Fluids including Blood - The solution to pollution is dilution, increases BP by giving your heart more fluids to push out
Combat Gauze - Has a chemical in the bandage that when in contact with blood will immediately start clotting
Emergency Trauma Bandage - A pressure dressing used to constantly have force towards a wound reducing lost blood

Cardiogenic Shock
(Cardio = Heart) (Genic = Production)
Condition in which your heart can't supply enough blood for your body's needs without trauma. This is generally caused after an extremely severe heart attack. The same effect of Hypovolemic Shock will happen here, even though it wasn't a traumatic experience your hearts still can't meet your body's blood demands. You will begin compensating, prioritizing major organs and reducing bloodflow to extremities. Heart rate will drastically increase until your heart can't handle it anymore and you begin decompensating. Your blood pressure tanks and your organs aren't being supplied with blood or oxygen anymore.

Vasopressors - Medication used to treat low blood pressure (Decompensating)
Blood thinners - Used to reduce blood clotting and keep blood moving through narrowed arteries and veins (Contracting)
Cardioversion - Procedure that constantly shocks your heart back into a normal rate, unlike shocking during CPR this is a constant shock to a pace we set
Surgery - Stents, Pumps, Bypass, VAD, there are ton's of surgeries to attempt to correct this.

Anaphylactic Shock
(Ana = Antibodies in your blood) (Phylactic = Guarding)
A rare but severe allergic reaction that immediately needs Epinephrine to combat or it can be life threatening. In the simplest of terms your body thinks it's under attack from whatever antibody you're allergic to. Once it senses it, your body goes into self defense mode. Most threatening is your throat swelling, you can no longer get a breathe in, which means you aren't circulating oxygen. Your vital organs start going into overdrive attempting to fix the problem, but you get a laundry list of symptoms because your brain is no longer functioning correctly.

Benadryl - Antihistamine that treats basic allergic reactions
Epinephrine - It basically relaxes your muscles telling your body to calm down
Solumedrol - Reduces swelling and is a more advanced Antihistamine
Generally all 3 are given in a medical setting to overkill the allergic reaction

Septic Shock
(Sepsis = Infection)
This occurs when your body goes into a dangerously low blood pressure from an infection from within. Either a severely localized or a system wide infection has begun infecting your body. There are so many types of sepsis I will keep it at the basic level and just explain what usually happens. Bacteria enters your blood stream and starts leaking from your vessels. It will begin spreading to your organs and disrupting your chemical balance while also stopping your organs from working properly. Without treatment it will continue spreading until your major organs are affected and cause death.

IV Fluids - Once again the solution to pollution is dilution. It will increase your bloodflow and dilute toxins within them
Medications - Vasopressors can be given if your blood pressure remains low after IV fluids
Antibiotics - Broad spectrum antibiotics are given to combat the bacteria wherever it may be
Surgery - Whether it be collecting specimens to test for the type of infection, or removing infected areas

Neurogenic Shock
(Neuro = Brain) (Genic = Production)
Condition in which you'll struggle to maintain blood pressure, heart rate, and temperature from your brain due to a spinal cord injury. Your body goes into fight or flight and your blood vessels can't communicate with your nerves. Without this communication your blood vessels have no commands and just stay completely open, causing your blood pressure to lower which kills tissue and causes your organs to not get enough oxygen.

Medication - Tons of different medications to fight the low blood pressure and get your body to communicate again
IV Fluids - Increases your blood pressure which will give you more flow increasing oxygen

Everything in this thread is explained at the most basic of levels. While it is all true some information is passed over so that more readers will be able to understand it without going more in depth of other conditions and factors that lead to them.